General Studies-2:  (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations)

General Studies Paper 3: Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management  


Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh has approved the budgetary support of Rs 498.8 crore to Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) – Defence Innovation Organisation (DIO) for the next five years.

Primary objective :

  • Self-reliance and indigenisation in defence & aerospace sector of the country.

Purpose of creating the iDEX framework and establishment of the DIO by the Department of Defence Production (DDP):

Creating an ecosystem to foster innovation and technology development in defence and aerospace by engaging Industries including MSMEs, start-ups, individual innovators, R&D institutes & academia and provide them grants/funding and other support to carry out R&D development which has good potential for future adoption for Indian defence and aerospace needs.

About the scheme:

Budgetary support :Rs 498.8 crore for the next five years.


  • Providing financial support to nearly 300 start-ups/MSMEs/individual innovators and 20 partner incubators under the DIO framework.
  • It will support increased awareness in the Indian innovation ecosystem about defence needs and, conversely, in the Indian Defence establishment about the potential of the Indian innovation eco-system to deliver innovative solutions to meet their needs.
  • Enable the creation of channels for innovators to engage and interact with the Indian Defence production industry.
  •  To facilitate rapid development of new, indigenised and innovative technologies for the Indian defence and aerospace sector to meet their needs in shorter timelines.
  • Create a culture of engagement with innovative start-ups to encourage co-creation for defence and aerospace; empower a culture of technology co-creation and co-innovation within the defence and aerospace sector and boost innovation among the start-ups and encourage them to be a part of the ecosystem.


General Studies-2:  (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations)

General Studies Paper 3: Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management  


  • Under Project O2 for India,a National Consortium of Oxygen is enabling the national level supplyof critical raw materials such as zeolites, setting up of small oxygen plants, manufacturing compressors, final products, i.e.,oxygen plants, concentrators, and ventilators. 
  • The consortium is not only looking forward to providing immediate to short-term relief but also working to strengthen the manufacturing ecosystem for long-term preparedness.


A committee of experts has been evaluating critical equipment such as oxygen plants, concentrators, and ventilators ,from a pool of India-based manufacturers, start-ups, and MSMEs (in partnership with FICCI,MESA, etc.).


The manufacturing and supply consortium also includes Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL); Tata Consulting Engineers (TCE); C-CAMP, Bengaluru; IIT Kanpur (IIT-K); IIT Delhi (IIT-D);IIT Bombay (IIT-B), IIT Hyderabad (IIT-H); IISER, Bhopal; Venture Center, Pune; and more than 40 MSMEs.

  • The consortium has started to secure CSR/philanthropic grants from organizations like USAID, Edwards Life sciences Foundation, Climate Works Foundation, etc.
  • Hope Foundation, American Indian Foundation, Walmart, Hitachi, BNP Paribas, and eInfoChips are procuring oxygen concentrators and VPSA/PSA plants as part of their CSR efforts to aid the consortium’s work.
  • NMDC Ltd has agreed to fund the procurement of raw materials like zeolite for the manufacturers in the consortium.

TOPIC 3 – New Atlantic charter

General Studies-2: (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations)


President Joe Biden and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson signed a new Atlantic Charter on Thursday, modeled after the 1941 agreement, that outlines eight key areas on which the U.S. and the United Kingdom plan to collaborate.

  • The charter commits to combating the modern challenges of cyberthreats and climate change and to bringing the pandemic to an end. As a result of the agreement, Biden and Johnson will work to reopen travel between the U.S. and the U.K. as soon as possible. They plan to create a new travel task force that will make recommendations about safely reopening international travel.
  • To help bring an end to the pandemic globally, the two leaders are expected to agree to work together on genomic sequencing and reviewing Covid-19 variants.
  • They also agreed to a new plan that would be signed next year that would help alleviate obstacles British technology firms face when working with U.S. counterparts.

The Atlantic Charter :

  • The Atlantic Charter was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1941, outlining their goals for after World War II.

The original Atlantic Charter included agreements to promote democracy and free trade.

The agreements within the new charter are expected to include commitments to resume U.K.-U.S. travel, boost trade, and a “landmark” technology pact designed to facilitate cooperation between British and American tech firms.

  • It will also address more recent challenges, such as dealing with the threat posed by cyberattacks, action on climate change and to protect biodiversity and efforts to bring an end to, and recover from, the coronavirus pandemic.


  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention eased travel recommendations for more than 110 countries and territories. But the U.K. was not among that list given the spread of the Delta variant, originally discovered in India.
  • The U.S. currently bars nearly all non-U.S. citizens who have within the previous 14 days been to the U.K., Ireland and the 26 Schengen nations in Europe that don’t have border controls.
  • The Biden administration is forming expert working groups with Canada, Mexico, the EU and U.K. to determine how best to restart travel safely, according to a senior White House official.
  • The U.K. said the new travel taskforce will be overseen in the country’s Transport Department and their U.S. counterparts.


Biden and Johnson will also look for ways to enhance the economic relationship between the countries, “including through a resolution to the civil aircraft dispute,” reiterating hopes for an end to a long-running tariff dispute between the U.S. and Europe related to their respective aircraft manufacturing rivals Boeing and Airbus.


  • The leaders are also expected to agree “to pursue a landmark bilateral technology agreement” to be signed in 2022.
  • “The agreement will start a new era of strategic cooperation by reducing the barriers British tech firms face when trying to work with their U.S. counterparts.

TOPIC 4 – Bharitalasuchus tapani

General Studies Paper 3: Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management  


In the mid 20th century, researchers from the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, carried out extensive studies on rocks of the Yerrapalli Formation in what is now Telangana, uncovering several fossils. By studying some of these specimens stored at the Institute, an international team has now thrown light on a carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago.

  • In the Telugu language, Bhari means huge, Tala means head, and Suchus is the name of the Egyptian crocodile-headed deity. The species is named after paleontologist Tapan Roy Chowdhury .
  • Further studies revealed that the reptile belonged to a family of extinct reptiles named Erythrosuchidae. 
  • The Indian fossil specimen was not studied earlier because it was not as complete as the specimens found in other countries

TOPIC 5 – Mouse sperm stored on International Space Station produces healthy offspring

General Studies Paper 3: Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management  


Japanese researchers found mouse sperm exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation for nearly six years produced a large brood of healthy, unremarkable “space pups

The sperm was stored in the International Space Station in freeze-dried form. Once brought back to Earth and rehydrated, it resulted in the birth of 168 young, free of genetic defects.

Purpose of study:

  • They wanted to determine whether long term exposure to radiation in space would damage DNA in reproductive cells or pass mutations along to offspring.
  • That could be a problem for our own species in future space exploration and colonisation missions.
  • Batches were returned to Earth for fertilisation after the first nine months, then after two years, and finally after six years, leading to hundreds of births.
  • Freeze-dried sperm was selected for the experiment because it can be preserved at room temperature, rather than needing a freezer.
  • The ampoules were also small and very light, about the size of a small pencil, further cutting launch costs.
  • When the space mice reached adulthood, they were randomly mated and the next generation appeared normal as well.

Why freeze- dried sperms are taken?

  • Deep space is filled with strong radiation from both solar particles and galactic cosmic rays from outside our system.
  • Solar flares from the surface of the Sun generate particles that can have particularly devastating impacts on human health and penetrate current generation spaceships.
  • According to Wakayama, the process of freeze drying sperm increases its tolerance compared to fresh sperm, since the former does not contain water inside its cell nuclei and cytoplasms.
  • According to the team’s calculations, freeze-dried sperm could be stored for up to 200 years on board the orbital outpost.
  • Humanity might also want to spread its genetic resources off planet in case of a disaster on Earth,